Frequently Asked Questions
What are exports?
Exports are any items (e.g., commodities, software, technology) sent from the U.S. to a foreign destination. Exports include the release of restricted technology or data (orally or in writing) to foreign nationals inside the U.S. — these are called “deemed” exports, because such releases are considered to be exports to the country where the foreign national is a citizen, regardless of the fact that the foreign national is in the United States at the time the disclosure is made.
What is a “deemed export”?
A “deemed export” is a release of technology or software source code to a foreign national that is deemed to be an export under applicable export control laws to the foreign national’s home country. Such deemed exports occur through the disclosure of controlled technical data or software source code to a foreign national in the United States or abroad. Deemed exports are subject to the same licensing requirements and restrictions as actual exports.
Additional information and FAQs relating to deemed exports is available on the Commerce Department website at http://www.bis.doc.gov/deemedexports/deemedexportsfaqs.html.
What are export controls?
Export controls are federal laws that regulate the export of sensitive technologies, equipment, software, biological agents and related data and services. There are two sets of export control regulations that are most frequently encountered in the context of university research. The Commerce Department regulates exports of commercial items with potential military applications (so called “dual-use” items) under the Export Administration Regulations (“EAR”). The State Department regulates exports of items and services specifically designed for military applications under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (“ITAR”).
These laws require that licenses be obtained for exports, including “deemed” exports, of these sensitive items (e.g., defense articles, items with potential military applications, select agents) unless an exemption exists.
How do these laws apply to research at USC?
Export control laws must always be followed, regardless of sponsor or the nature of the research. However, fundamental research is not subject to the license requirements of export control regulations. Fundamental research is defined as basic or applied research in science or engineering at an accredited institution of higher learning in the U.S. where the output of the research may be freely shared with the scientific community, and where there are no restrictions on participation in the research based on nationality.
What is "fundamental research"?
Fundamental research is defined as basic and applied research in science and engineering conducted at an accredited U.S. institution of higher education where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly within the scientific community. Such research can be distinguished from proprietary research, the results of which ordinarily are restricted for proprietary reasons or specific national security reasons. Research conducted by scientists, engineers or students at a university normally will be considered fundamental research.
Information that qualifies as “fundamental research” is not subject to export control regulations. USC is committed to the widest possible public dissemination of scientific learning and research results. Therefore, the vast majority of research conducted at USC is considered to be fundamental research, and not subject to the export control regulations.
Why should I be concerned with export control compliance?
Individuals who violate export regulations are subject to civil and criminal sanctions (including fines and/or prison sentences for individuals), and universities and research institutions are subject to administrative sanctions (monetary fines and loss of research funding and export privileges). The International Emergency Economic Powers Enhancement Act of 2007 has provisions which increase civil penalties for violations of the EAR from $50,000 per violation to the greater of $250,000 or twice the amount of the transaction. The act also allows for criminal penalties of up to $1 million and 20 years imprisonment.
When is research at USC not considered to be “fundamental research”?
University research will not be deemed to qualify as fundamental research if:
- The university accepts any restrictions on the publication of the information resulting from the research
- The university accepts any nationality restrictions on who may participate in the research
If research does not qualify as fundamental research, it is subject to export controls regulations, and an analysis must be undertaken to determine if export licenses must be obtained before foreign nationals may participate, or before research output is shared.
Are there any other reasons why information is not subject to export control regulations?
Yes. If information has already been published or is within the public domain, it is not subject to export control regulations. Information is “published” or within the “public domain” when it becomes generally accessible to the public in any form, including: (1) publication in periodicals, books, print, electronic or other media available for general distribution (including websites that provide free uncontrolled access) or for distribution to a community of persons interested in the subject matter, such as those in a scientific or engineering discipline; (2) readily available at libraries open to the public; (3) patents and published patent applications available at any patent office; and (4) release at an open conference, meeting, seminar, trade show or other open gathering.
Therefore, if you are provided information to support research activity and that information is already in the public domain, it is not subject to export control regulations and may be disseminated freely without considering possible export licensing requirements.
If you are uncertain whether certain information is considered public domain information under export control regulations, contact the Office of Compliance at (213) 740-8258 or email@example.com for assistance.
What are trade sanctions regulations, and how do they relate to export control regulations?
The Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions against targeted countries on the basis of foreign policy and national security reasons. The sanctions applicable to a particular country vary significantly, but usually include restrictions on imports, exports, investment, facilitation of foreign transactions and travel.
Sanctions regulations apply regardless of the fundamental research exemption. Current listings of the countries subject to these sanctions may be found at http://www.ustreas.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/. (OFAC currently administers sanctions against the following countries, among others: Belarus, Burma, Cuba, Iran, Ivory Coast, Liberia, North Korea, Sudan, Syria and Zimbabwe. However, the list is subject to change at any time).
In addition, OFAC administers sanctions against designated entities and individuals found by the U.S. government to be agents of the sanctioned countries, terrorism sponsoring organizations, international narcotics traffickers, weapons proliferators or otherwise engaged in activities that threaten the security of the United States. These entities and individuals generally are identified on the List of Specially Designated Nationals (the “SDN List”). Virtually all transactions with these entities and individuals are prohibited.
Please contact the USC Office of Compliance before engaging in any activity involving the sanctioned countries, entities or individuals referenced above.
What other considerations should USC employees be aware of when transferring or transporting research materials, software or data?
The following is a list of some of the types of activities where USC employees need to be aware of applicable legal requirements:
- Research materials an employee intends to ship or hand-carry abroad
- Transfer of research materials, software, biological materials or data sets from abroad to the United States
- Commercial shipment of hazardous materials
- International travel to support university activity, including research
Please contact the Office of Compliance if you intend to travel abroad in support of USC activity, or if you intend to transport research materials, software, or data.
What are some grant/contract clauses to look for that carry export control ramifications?
The Department of Contracts and Grants works to identify sponsored agreements with provisions that may carry export control ramifications, and to negotiate these provisions out of the applicable agreement whenever possible. That said, investigators and other research personnel can play an important role in identifying problematic clauses. Examples of some of these clauses include:
- "The parties acknowledge that the subject of this agreement may be subject to ITAR, EAR and/or other export control regulations as mandated by Federal law. University agrees to indemnify, defend and hold Sponsor harmless from any and all suits, damages or other liabilities resulting from the violation of such regulations.”
DFAR 252.204-7000, Disclosure of Information
“(a) The Contractor shall not release to anyone outside the Contractor’s organization any unclassified information...”
FAR 52.227-17, Rights in Data – Special Works
“…(d) Release and use restrictions. Except as otherwise specifically provided for in this contract, the Contractor shall not use for purposes other than the performance of this contract, nor shall the Contractor release, reproduce, distribute, or publish any data first produced in the performance of this contract, nor authorize others to do so, without written permission of the Contracting Officer…”
I have another question that was not answered. What do I do now?
Contact the Office of Compliance at (213) 740-8258 or firstname.lastname@example.org.